Download E-books Linux System Programming: Talking Directly to the Kernel and C Library PDF

By Robert Love

Write software program that attracts without delay on companies provided by way of the Linux kernel and center method libraries. With this accomplished ebook, Linux kernel contributor Robert Love provide you with an instructional on Linux method programming, a reference handbook on Linux method calls, and an insider’s advisor to writing smarter, quicker code.

Love sincerely distinguishes among POSIX common capabilities and designated providers provided in basic terms through Linux. With a brand new bankruptcy on multithreading, this up to date and elevated version presents an in-depth examine Linux from either a theoretical and utilized point of view over quite a lot of programming themes, including:

  • A Linux kernel, C library, and C compiler overview
  • Basic I/O operations, reminiscent of studying from and writing to files
  • Advanced I/O interfaces, reminiscence mappings, and optimization techniques
  • The relations of approach demands uncomplicated strategy management
  • Advanced approach administration, together with real-time processes
  • Thread options, multithreaded programming, and Pthreads
  • File and listing management
  • Interfaces for allocating reminiscence and optimizing reminiscence access
  • Basic and complex sign interfaces, and their function at the system
  • Clock administration, together with POSIX clocks and high-resolution timers

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They achieve this through a different method name, which makes making a new consultation effortless: #include pid_t setsid (void); a decision to setsid( ) creates a brand new consultation, assuming that the method isn't really already a approach crew chief. The calling strategy is made the consultation chief and sole member of the recent consultation, which has no controlling tty. the decision additionally creates a brand new strategy team contained in the consultation, and makes the calling approach the method staff chief and sole member. the hot session’s and procedure group’s IDs are set to the calling strategy’ pid. In different phrases, setsid( ) creates a brand new technique staff within a brand new consultation, and makes the invoking technique the chief of either. this is often worthwhile for daemons, which don't need to be individuals of present periods, or to have controlling terminals, and for shells, which are looking to create a brand new consultation for every consumer upon login. On luck, setsid( ) returns the consultation identity of the newly created consultation. On blunders, the decision returns -1. the one attainable errno code is EPERM, which exhibits that the method is presently a method crew chief. one of the simplest ways to make sure that any given method isn't a procedure staff chief is to fork, have the dad or mum terminate, and feature the kid practice the setsid( ). for instance: pid_t pid; pid = fork ( ); if (pid == -1) { perror ("fork"); go back -1; } else if (pid ! = zero) go out (EXIT_SUCCESS); if (setsid ( ) == -1) { perror ("setsid"); go back -1; } acquiring the present consultation identity, whereas much less worthy, is usually attainable: #define _XOPEN_SOURCE 500 #include pid_t getsid (pid_t pid); a choice to getsid( ) returns the consultation identity of the method pointed out by way of pid. If the pid argument is zero, the decision returns the consultation identity of the calling approach. On mistakes, the decision returns -1. the one attainable errno worth is ESRCH, indicating that pid doesn't correspond to a 156 | bankruptcy five: approach administration valid procedure. observe that different Unix structures can also set errno to EPERM, indicating that pid and the invoking procedure don't belong to an identical consultation; Linux doesn't go back this mistake, and fortunately returns the consultation identification of any procedure. utilization is uncommon and essentially for diagnostic reasons: pid_t sid; sid = getsid (0); if (sid == -1) perror ("getsid"); /* shouldn't be attainable */ else printf ("My consultation id=%d\n", sid); technique crew process Calls a choice to setpgid( ) units the method staff identification of the method pointed out by means of pid to pgid: #define _XOPEN_SOURCE 500 #include int setpgid (pid_t pid, pid_t pgid); the present method is used if the pid argument is zero. If pgid is zero, the method identity of the method pointed out by means of pid is used because the strategy crew identification. On good fortune, setpgid( ) returns zero. luck is contingent on a number of stipulations: • the method pointed out by way of pid needs to be the calling strategy, or a toddler of the calling approach, that has now not issued an exec name, and is within the similar consultation because the calling technique. • the method pointed out via pid must never be a consultation chief. • If pgid already exists, it has to be within the comparable consultation because the calling strategy.

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