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Coherent Radiation Sources, 1st Edition by A. W. Sáenz, H. Überall (auth.), Professor Albert W. Sáenz,

By A. W. Sáenz, H. Überall (auth.), Professor Albert W. Sáenz, Professor Herbert Überall (eds.)

Energetic electromagnetic radiation unearths widespread makes use of in technology (e. g. , for expe­ riments in nuclear and uncomplicated - particle physics), in expertise (for fabrics testing), and in drugs (for clinical X-rays). the most typical approach to genera­ ting such radiation is through the method of "bremsstrahlung" (a German time period coined by way of A. Sommerfeld, that means "braking radiation") within which a beam of electrons is direc­ ted into topic (e. g. , a steel target), wasting power in the course of its collisions with the atoms and freeing this power within the kind of emitted radiation. the nature of such radiation might be enormously replaced via a tar­ get with periodic constitution (most in most cases, a crystal target). The coherent waves emitted from person crystal atoms intrude with one another, monochromatizing and polarizing the radiation and sometimes expanding its depth manifold, thereby making a strong radiation resource of top quality for reasons of clinical and technical functions. this is often real either for the good - tested "coherent bremsstrahlung" approach during which the interfering radiation is emitted whereas the electrons pass a succession of crystal planes, in addition to for the extra lately came across technique of "channeling radiation" (generating radiation of even larger depth, yet reduce power) during which the radiation is emitted whereas the electrons propagate alongside a crystal airplane, or a crystal axis, in an oscillatory fashion.

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Phys. 46 Yu. S. F. I. Mineev: Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. : Sov. F. E. S. Naval Research Laboratory, Nuclear Physics Division Annual Report 1969 (unpublished), pp. L. L. D. Bloom: Phys. Rev. U. Andersen, E. Bonderup, E. B. H. S¢rensen: Nucl. Instrum. Meth. E. Watson, J. Koehler: Phys. Rev. A24, 861 (1981); Phys. Rev. W. Saenz, H. Oberal 1 : Phys. Rev. V. A. Kumakhov: Radiat. Eff. V. Berry: J. Phys. W. Saenz, H. Oberall, A. Nagl: Nucl. Phys. H. E. Dance: Phys. Rev. 56 L. Van Hove: Phys. Rev. 57 In particular, Eq.

The frames A and B ensure the rotation of the internal frame C with a crystal around mutually perpendicular vertical (fV) and horizontal (f H) axes of the goniometer by angles ~V and ~H in the range ±8° with a setting accuracy of M = 5 x 1O-5rad . The frame C has a third rotation axis fA normal to fw By rotating the crystal around the axis fA within the range 0 -360°, the direction of the photon polarization vector can be changed. 6. (a) Schematic view of a goniometer. 16) Here ~~, ~~, and ~~ are the angles at which e, a, and ~, respectively, are equal to zero.

12. 13a,b. S GeV, ex = 0°, Bc = 1O- 3rad, and llE/E = 4 x 10- 2 . s. angle of multiple scattering was 1. Si. CD :;ll -20 -10 0 8 [mradl 10 20 The orientational intensity dependence at an assigned photon energy, similarly to bremsstrahlung energy spectra, shows several interference maxima. 24,5S,59]. 37,59,60]. OS mm thick, cut parallel to the crystal axes b1 = , b 2 = <110>, and b3 = <001>, were used as targets. 13b shows the number of SOD-MeV secondary electrons as a function of the orientation angle for a 2-mmthick diamond crystal.

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