By Peter Kappeler, Carel P. van Schaik
This e-book examines the numerous aspects of cooperative habit in primates and people as the various world’s top specialists evaluation and summarize the cutting-edge of theoretical and empirical experiences of cooperation. This booklet is the 1st to bridge the distance among parallel examine in primatology and reports of people. Comparative as this process is, it highlights either universal ideas and facets of human strong point with recognize to cooperative behavior.
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Additional resources for Cooperation in Primates and Humans: Mechanisms and Evolution
The first scrap of meat that one chimpanzee shares with another may be more valuable than the second or third bit. In addition, the benefits derived from particular types of service may depend on the recipient’s age or reproductive status. Thus, agonistic support may have greater value to an adolescent female who is trying to establish her dominance position than to an aged female whose reproductive value has declined almost to zero. The phenotypic gambit (Grafen 1991), which has been one of the behavioral ecologist’s most productive tools, falters when there is so much uncertainty about the fitness consequences of behavior.
Similarly, in Cayo Santiago, female rhesus macaques associate and groom with maternal half-sisters at much higher rates than with paternal half-sisters, but they interact with paternal half-sisters at higher rates than with true non-kin (Widdig et al. 2001, 2002). Paternal kin discrimination does not extend to all behaviors. Females do not support paternal half-sisters at higher rates than non-kin, even though they selectively groom them (Widdig 2002). This pattern might be a byproduct of early biases in association patterns if mothers selectively associate with the fathers of their offspring.
2000, 2002a). Males do seem to prefer age-mates and males close in rank to themselves. If reproductive skew is high, then age-mates might be paternal kin (Mitani et al. 2002a). However, the average degree of relatedness among males in chimpanzee communities in the Taï Forest and in Budongo, is surprisingly low (Vigilant et al. 2001), potentially reducing the scope for maternal or paternal nepotism among adult males. In bonobos, Pan paniscus, males are the philopatric sex, but bonds among male bonobos are weaker than bonds between males and females or between females (reviewed by Hohmann & Fruth 2002).