By Ilkka Niiniluoto
This ebook involves the rescue of medical realism, exhibiting that reviews of its dying were enormously exaggerated. Philosophical realism holds that the purpose of a specific discourse is to make real statements approximately its subject material. Ilkka Niiniluoto surveys other kinds of realism in a variety of components of philosophy after which units out his personal serious realist philosophy of science.
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Additional resources for Critical Scientific Realism (Clarendon Library of Logic and Philosophy)
The following quotation suggests 11 See the discussion in Hempel (1983) and Kornblith (1985). 16 VARIETIES OF REALISM that Laudan in fact is willing to include all historical cases among the relevant test cases: In their original forms, these philosophical models are often couched in normative language. Whenever possible we have recast their claims about how science ought to behave into declarative statements about how science does behave. We have a reasonably clear conscience about such translations since all the authors whose work we have paraphrased are explicitly committed to the claim that science, because it is rational, will normally behave in ways which those authors normatively endorse....
ONTOLOGY 36 such issues as the existence of God, determinism vs. indeterminism, or universals vs. tropes. Conversely, ontological concepts and theses are relevant to the scientific realist in several ways. First, scientific research programmes cannot help using general ontological terms like 'object' and 'fact'. Such terms are needed in the interpretation of the content of our best theories in science, and (pace Fine 1984) some philosophical content has to be given to them. Secondly, ontological terms are needed in order to formulate the philosophical programme of scientific realism, and attempts to defend or to denounce this programme usually appeal to specific (often tacit) ontological assumptions.
To test the independence of A on B, ask whether A could still exist in the world where B has disappeared. 3 EXISTENCE, MIND-INDEPENDENCE, REALITY 27 Ontological independence should be clearly distinguished from causal independence: A is causally independent of B if B cannot causally influence A. The physical and the mental are constantly in causal interaction: for example, a tree as an object of my visual sensation causally brings about a mental event, a perception, in my mind; I can plan in my mind, and then execute with my body, an action of moving and shaping a stone.