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Croatia: A Nation Forged in War; Third Edition by Marcus Tanner

By Marcus Tanner

From the ashes of former Yugoslavia an self sustaining Croatian country has arisen, the achievement, within the phrases of President Franjo Tudjman, of the Croats' "thousand-year-old dream of independence." but few international locations in Europe were born amid such sour controversy and bloodshed: the savage warfare among pro-independence forces and the Yugoslav military left approximately one-third of the rustic in ruins and led to the flight of 1 / 4 of 1000000 of the country's Serbian minority.

In this e-book an eyewitness to the breakup of Yugoslavia offers the 1st complete account of the increase, fall, and rebirth of Croatia from its medieval origins to cutting-edge tentative peace. Marcus Tanner describes the production of the 1st Croatian kingdom; its absorption into feudal Hungary within the center a long time; the catastrophic event of the Ottoman invasion; the absorption of the lowered nation into Habsburg Austria; the evolution of recent Croatian nationalism after the French Revolution; and the conditions that propelled Croatia into the hands of Nazi Germany and the brutal, home-grown "Ustashe" circulation within the moment international warfare. ultimately, drawing on first-hand wisdom of a number of the prime figures within the clash, Tanner explains the failure of Tito's Communists to unravel Yugoslavia's tortured nationwide challenge through making a federal nation, and the violent implosion after his death.

Croatia's specific place at the crossroads of Europe—between jap and Western Christendom, the Mediterranean, and the Balkans and among the outdated Habsburg and Ottoman empires—has been either a curse and a blessing, inviting the eye of bigger and extra strong buddies. The turbulence and drama of Croatia's previous are vigorously portrayed during this robust history.

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Forfive days the cityheld out as the crusaders manoeuvred around the wall, using vast catapults to bombard the defences. On the fifth day, as the crusaders began to drill under the towers, Zadar gaveup thefight and hungcrosses on the walls - a sign of surrender by a Christian community which ought to have entitled the citizens to remain alive. Urged on by the Venetians, the crusaders took no notice. On entering the city they massacred the inhabitants and pillaged everything in sight. Churches were vandalisedand torn apart in the search for gold.

Of an expected 3 5,000 knightly volunteers, only about 11,000had turned up at theassembly pointin Venice in thesummer of 1202, where delays and a lack of money led to Venice threatening to turf them out or cut off their victuals. Enrico Dandolo, the elderly Doge of Venice, then made use of the crusaders’ plight to further the city’s territorial ambitions at Dalmatia’s expense, and offered to waive the payment of 34,000 silver marks for supplies and refurbishments to the crusaders’ impressive armada if they would attack and capture thecity of Zadar for Venice.

After the capture of Belgrade in 1521,they could have marched north immediately, as there was little to stop them on the flat plains north of the Danube. Instead they turned back. Afterthe fall of Belgrade, the Hungarians did nothing to shore up their tottering defences. Conventional wisdomis that Louis I1 would have done best to fall back with his smallarmy on Buda. Instead he raced south to meet the Ottomans on an exposed plain at Mohacs, in southern Hungary. Suleyman crossed the River Dravaon 2 1August with a force of about 200,000 men.

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