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Dairy technology : principles of milk properties and by Pieter Walstra; et al

By Pieter Walstra; et al

Describes the effective transformation of milk right into a number of items, concentrating on the alterations in uncooked fabric, and intermediate and ultimate items. The booklet info the strategies for making sure processing potency and product caliber. content material: Milk -- Composition, constitution, and houses -- Milk parts -- Colloidal debris of milk -- Microbiology of milk -- approaches -- basic points -- warmth therapy -- Centrifugation -- Homogenization -- focus technique -- Cooling and freezing -- Lactic fermentations -- Fouling, cleansing and disinfection -- Packing -- Milk items -- Milk for liquid intake -- Cream items -- focused milks -- Milk powder -- Protein arrangements -- Butter -- Fermented milks -- Cheese -- ideas of cheese making -- strategy steps -- Cheese ripening and houses -- Microbial defects -- Cheese forms. summary: Describes the effective transformation of milk right into a number of items, targeting the alterations in uncooked fabric, and intermediate and ultimate items. The booklet info the techniques for making sure processing potency and product caliber

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On heating, caramelization also can occur. A mixture of reaction products is formed, including: Milk Components 29 Hydroxymethylfurfural Furfuryl alcohol Acetol Methylglyoxal Formaldehyde Acetic acid Formic acid Pyruvic acid Levulinic acid CH3⋅CO⋅CH2OH CH3⋅CO⋅CHO HCOH CH3⋅COOH HCOOH CH3⋅CO⋅COOH CH3⋅CO⋅CH2⋅CH2⋅COOH The proportions of the products formed depend on concentration of sugar, pH, heating time, and temperature. The very important Maillard reaction occurs in the presence of amino compounds (in milk it mainly concerns the ε-amino group of the lysine residue in proteins).

Such high lactic acid concentrations inhibit growth of most microorganisms. 2 SALTS Milk contains inorganic and organic salts. ’’ Salts are by no means equivalent to ‘‘ash’’ because ashing of milk causes loss of organic acids including citrate and acetate, and because organic phosphorus and sulfur are transferred to inorganic salts during ashing. , P), acid residue (PO 3Ϫ 4 ), or oxide (P2O5 ). 6. The salt composition varies, but the various components do not vary independently of each other. Not all of the salts are dissolved, and not all of the dissolved salts are ionized.

The remaining liquid (serum) is still opalescent, so it must contain other particles. The fat globules have a thin outer layer (membrane) of different constitution. From H. Mulder and P. Walstra, The Milk Fat Globule (Wageningen: Pudoc, 1974). they have an electrostatic charge, being negative at the pH of milk. Their total surface area is large. Fat globules. To a certain extent, milk is an oil-in-water emulsion. But the fat globules are more complicated than emulsion droplets. Especially the surface layer or membrane of the fat globule is not an adsorption layer of one single substance, but consists of many components; its structure is complicated.

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