By Richard J. Goss
It is a e-book approximately considered one of nature's so much striking accomplishments. whilst deer develop antlers they're really regenerating anatomically complicated appendages - whatever that no different mammal can do. the speed at which antler elongate makes them the quickest becoming buildings within the animal nation. Profoundly suffering from male hormones, those secondary intercourse characters develop into giant tumors if the deer owning them is castrated. those and different certain features have made antlers the point of interest of in depth clinical study that addresses a few provocative questions: From what tissues do antlers enhance? through what morphogenetic mechanisms are they regenerated each year? What social features caused their preliminary evolution? How are they encouraged by way of hormones, and by means of the seasonal daylength fluctuations that keep watch over their annual alternative cycles? those and lots of different questions are thought of during this accomplished account of antlerology. scholars of improvement, evolution, and behaviour will locate a lot to understand during this quantity, as will ecologists, flora and fauna biologists, and zookeepers. it's a wealthy resource of data for endocrinologists and physiologists drawn to the connection of antlers to the reproductive cycle. The orthopedists will locate the learn of antlers a important version of skeletal progress and bone affliction, and the purported medicinal homes of velvet antlers can be a subject matter of curiosity to the pharmacologist. Deer Antlers: Regeneration, functionality, and Evolution is as scientifically actual because it is readable. It doesn't solution all questions on those precise appendages, however it is sure to arouse interest concerning the many unsolved difficulties of the way antlers develop, die, and are shed during a unmarried yr.
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Additional info for Deer Antlers: Regeneration, Function and Evolution
Zool. 177, 5 5 3 - 5 6 6 . Luick, J. R. (1980). Circumpolar problems in managing populations of wild and domestic reindeer. "Proceedings of the Second International Reindeer/Caribou Symposium" (E. Reimers, E. Gaare, and S. ), pp. 6 8 6 - 6 8 8 . Direktoratet for vilt og ferskvannsfisk, Trondheim. Lydekker, R. (1898). "The Deer of All Lands. , London. Lydekker, R. (1904). The Ichang tufted deer. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 2, 1 6 6 - 1 6 9 . McCullough, D. R. (1969). The Tule Elk. Univ. , Berkeley. Publ.
The smaller Reeves' mutjac (Mutiacus reevesi) is native to eastern China and Taiwan. The reproductive and antler growth cycles of the muntjac are not necessarily coordinated (Buckingham, 1981; Chaplin, 1972; Dansie, 1970; Soper, 1969). Although antlers are replaced each year during the spring and summer months as in most deer native to the temperate zone, there is no 24 2. The Diversity of Deer Fig. 14. The antlers of Reeves' muntjac seldom exceed the lengths of the pedicles on which they grow.
Specimens imported from Chile to Germany in the 1960s, following a period of adaptation, tended to cast their antlers in December or January, and shed the velvet in May to July. Births were mostly in June following a 7-month gestation (Frädrich, 1975). Presumably this is the reverse of the seasonality in their native habitat. Cervid Classification The major taxonomic relationships of deer may be based on four lines of evidence. These are the fossil record, their geographic distribution, the Cervid Classification 43 Fig.